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Do i use the published online date for refrencing

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 · You have the original publication date, reprint dates and dates for new editions. The date you should be using is the publication date for the edition you are using. If a book  · APA Style (7th ed.) provide a retrieval date in the source element when citing an unarchived (e.g., not stable) work that is likely or meant to change. Including this date  · Incidentally, Version of record online is mostly meaningless for a lot of math papers, since in math one often cites papers from well before the s. Knowing that a certain paper  · In the most extreme cases, you will see a long string like: "Submitted Date1, Revised Date2, Accepted Date 3, Published Online Date 4." In short: don't sweat the  · But only use access dates with online sources. No access date should be added for, e.g., a printed book without a publication date. Date ranges. When citing the entirety of a ... read more

Each source type has its own format; for example, a webpage citation is different from a book citation. APA format is widely used by professionals, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business. Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in to double-check which style you should be using. Yes, page numbers are included on all pages, including the title page , table of contents , and reference page.

Page numbers should be right-aligned in the page header. Want to contact us directly? No problem. We are always here for you. Scribbr specializes in editing study-related documents. We proofread:. You can find all the citation styles and locales used in the Scribbr Citation Generator in our publicly accessible repository on Github. Frequently asked questions See all. Home Frequently asked questions Should I include the exact publication date or just the year in an APA journal citation?

Should I include the exact publication date or just the year in an APA journal citation? The inclusion of volume and issue numbers makes a more specific date unnecessary. Frequently asked questions: APA Style How do I format a footnote in APA Style?

You can place footnotes at the bottom of the relevant pages, or on a separate footnotes page at the end: For footnotes at the bottom of the page, you can use your word processor to automatically insert footnotes. Indent the first line of each footnote, and double-space them.

For both approaches, place a space between the superscript number and the footnote text. Should I use footnotes in APA Style? However, you can use APA footnotes sparingly for two purposes: Giving additional information Providing copyright attribution.

Do I need to use the serial Oxford comma in APA Style? Is the passive voice allowed in APA Style? Can I write in the first person in APA Style? How do I cite multiple sources by the same author in APA Style? What statistical results do you need to report according to APA style? Report the following for each hypothesis test: the test statistic value the degrees of freedom the exact p value unless it is less than 0. How many decimal places do you use in APA style?

Use one decimal place for: Means Standard deviations Descriptive statistics based on discrete data Use two decimal places for: Correlation coefficients Proportions Inferential test statistics such as t values, F values, and chi-squares. Do I need to include a URL in an APA legal reference? Should I cite laws using public law numbers in APA Style? What tense should I write the methods section in?

What should I include in an APA methods section? Describe all relevant participant or subject characteristics, the sampling procedures used and the sample size and power. Define all primary and secondary measures and discuss the quality of measurements. Specify the data collection methods, the research design and data analysis strategy, including any steps taken to transform the data and statistical analyses. How do I cite a court case reported in multiple publications in APA Style?

For example: Brown v. Collins, U. LEXIS , S. How do I cite a court case with no page number in APA Style? Fulton, U. When should I use tables or figures to present numbers? To decide how to present numbers, you can follow APA guidelines: To present three or fewer numbers, try a sentence, To present between 4 and 20 numbers, try a table, To present more than 20 numbers, try a figure.

What should I include in an APA results section? In an APA results section , you should generally report the following: Participant flow and recruitment period. Missing data and any adverse events. Descriptive statistics about your samples. Inferential statistics , including confidence intervals and effect sizes. Results of any subgroup or exploratory analyses, if applicable. Who is listed as the author of a podcast in APA Style?

How do I cite a specific passage from the Bible in APA Style? For example: English Standard Version Bible , , 1 Cor. Do I need to include the Bible in my reference list in APA Style? Whom should I list as the author of a YouTube video in APA Style? For example: Nisha Anand TED , states that …. How do I cite a quote from a video or audio source in APA Style? For example: TED , , How do I quote in APA format? To include a direct quote in APA , follow these rules: Quotes under 40 words are placed in double quotation marks.

Quotes of 40 words or more are formatted as block quote. The author, year, and page number are included in an APA in-text citation. Should I include lists of my tables and figures in an APA paper?

How can I find copyright information on tables and figures from other sources? Should I include tables and figures in my APA reference list? Should I place the in-text citation before or after the period? The company invested over 40, hours in optimizing its algorithm Davis, How do I cite an indirect source in APA Style? Parenthetical citation: Brown, , as cited in Mahone, Narrative citation: Brown , as cited in Mahone, states that… On the reference page , you only include the secondary source Mahone, Is there a tool that can order my references automatically?

How do I order works whose title starts with a numeral? How do I order works that have no author? The privacy concerns around social media Teens, social media, and privacy Read more about alphabetizing the APA reference page. Can I cite sources in an appendix? Do I need to number my appendices in APA Style?

Referring to a single appendix see Appendix. Where do appendices go in an APA Style paper? What is an appendix? For example: Interview transcripts Questionnaires Raw data Detailed descriptions of equipment Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text e. Should I include tables and figures in the reference list? Should I include lists of my tables and figures?

When should I use a table or figure to present data? Is it important to your arguments? Does the table or figure require too much explanation to be efficient? Where does the abstract go in an APA paper?

How long should an APA abstract be? What types of source are cited as a personal communication in APA Style? Should interviews be included in an APA reference list? How do I cite social media content in APA Style?

How do I cite a source with no page numbers in APA Style? when citing a website but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two: Caulfield, , Linking section, para. How do I cite a source with no author in APA Style? When should I include an access date in an APA citation? What is the most current edition of the APA manual? Where can I buy or download the APA Manual 7th edition?

When will people start using the 7th edition APA Manual? When should I include the edition in an APA book citation? When should I include a DOI or URL in an APA journal citation? If an article has no DOI, and you accessed it through a database or in print, just omit the DOI. How many authors do I include in an APA reference list entry? When an article has more than 20 authors, replace the names prior to the final listed author with an ellipsis, but do not omit the final author: Davis, Y.

How do I format a DOI in APA Style? What does an APA in-text citation for a website look like? When should I include a page number in an APA in-text citation?

How do I cite a source with an unknown author or publication date in APA? What font and font size is used in APA format? For example: Times New Roman 12pt. Arial 11pt. Calibri 11pt. Georgia 11pt. How do I set up APA format in Word? How do I cite in APA format? Who uses APA Style? Should I include page numbers on every page? Ask our team Want to contact us directly?

How does Scribbr help students graduate? Finding the dates of books can be difficult. You have the original publication date, reprint dates and dates for new editions. The date you should be using is the publication date for the edition you are using. If a book has been reprinted , might simply means a new copy has been produced - the information in the book may not have changed although the formatting may have changed slightly. Therefore the information in the book still has the same date of publication.

A new edition , however, has changed some of the contents of the book, so you need the publication date for that edition. A good rule of thumb is to use the copyright date of the book and confirm with the date in the Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data if available. Look at the verso page for your book this is the "other side" of the title page. Find the copyright date on that page. The copyright date is a good guide, but it's not always reliable, unless it's the only date on the page.

Confirm the copyright date by checking the Library of Congress data:. Was this helpful? Yes 11 No 4. We acknowledge the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as the first inhabitants of the nation and acknowledge Traditional Owners of the lands where our staff and students, live, learn and work.

Library LibAnswers. Warning: Your browser has javascript disabled. Without javascript some functions will not work, including question submission via the form. When referencing a book, do I use the date published or the date reprinted? Toggle menu visibility.

In an APA reference list , journal article citations include only the year of publication, not the exact date, month, or season. APA footnotes use superscript numbers and should appear in numerical order. You can place footnotes at the bottom of the relevant pages, or on a separate footnotes page at the end:.

APA Style requires you to use APA in-text citations , not footnotes, to cite sources. However, you can use APA footnotes sparingly for two purposes:. Yes, APA language guidelines state that you should always use the serial comma aka Oxford comma in your writing.

The APA language guidelines do caution against overusing the passive voice, because it can obscure your meaning or be needlessly long-winded. For this reason, default to the active voice in most cases. The passive voice is most useful when the point of the sentence is just to state what was done, not to emphasize who did it. In APA Style, you should not refer to yourself in the third person. If you cite multiple sources by the same author s at the same point , you can just write the author name s once and separate the different years with commas, e.

To distinguish between sources with the same author s and the same publication year, add a different lowercase letter after the year for each source, e. Add the same letters to the corresponding reference entries. According to the APA guidelines, you should report enough detail on inferential statistics so that your readers understand your analyses.

You should also present confidence intervals and estimates of effect sizes where relevant. Generally, you should aim to round numbers while retaining precision. No, including a URL is optional in APA Style reference entries for legal sources e.

court cases , laws. Generally, you should identify a law in an APA reference entry by its location in the United States Code U. But if the law is either spread across various sections of the code or not featured in the code at all, include the public law number in addition to information on the source you accessed the law in, e. In your APA methods section , you should report detailed information on the participants, materials, and procedures used. To cite multiple reporters, just separate them with commas in your reference entry.

This is called parallel citation. For example:. In APA style, statistics can be presented in the main text or as tables or figures. To decide how to present numbers, you can follow APA guidelines:. Since these are general guidelines, use your own judgment and feedback from others for effective presentation of numbers. In an APA results section , you should generally report the following:.

Glass, I. When citing a whole podcast series, if different episodes have different hosts, list the executive producer s instead. Again, include a label identifying their role, e. Lechtenberg, S. Books of the Bible may be abbreviated to save space; a list of standard abbreviations can be found here.

Page numbers are not used in Bible citations. Yes, in the 7th edition of APA Style , versions of the Bible are treated much like other books ; you should include the edition you used in your reference list. Previously, in the 6th edition of the APA manual, it was recommended to just use APA 6 in-text citations to refer to the Bible, and omit it from the reference list.

To make it easy for the reader to find the YouTube video , list the person or organization who uploaded the video as the author in your reference entry and APA in-text citation. When you need to highlight a specific moment in a video or audio source, use a timestamp in your APA in-text citation. To include a direct quote in APA , follow these rules:. A list of tables and list of figures appear in that order after your table of contents, and are presented in a similar way.

Copyright information can usually be found wherever the table or figure was published. Images found on sites like Flickr are listed with clear copyright information. If you find that permission is required to reproduce the material, be sure to contact the author or publisher and ask for it. If you adapt or reproduce a table or figure from another source, you should include that source in your APA reference list.

You should also include copyright information in the note for the table or figure, and include an APA in-text citation when you refer to it. Tables and figures you created yourself, based on your own data, are not included in the reference list. An APA in-text citation is placed before the final punctuation mark in a sentence. Parenthetical citation: Brown, , as cited in Mahone, Narrative citation: Brown , as cited in Mahone, states that….

On the reference page , you only include the secondary source Mahone, Read more about alphabetizing the APA reference page. If the author of a work is unknown, order the reference by its title. Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices.

Use author-date citations as you do in the main text. Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list. Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices. Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text e. quoting from an interview transcript. You should also acknowledge the original source in the note or caption for the table or figure. A list of tables and list of figures appear in that order after your table of contents , and are presented in a similar way.

This is often the case when you need to communicate a large amount of information. If the data you need to present only contains a few relevant numbers, try summarizing it in the text potentially including full data in an appendix.

If describing the data makes your text overly long and difficult to read, a table or figure may be the best option. In an APA Style paper , the abstract is placed on a separate page after the title page page 2. An APA abstract is around — words long. In APA Style , all sources that are not retrievable for the reader are cited as personal communications. Common examples include conversations, emails, messages, letters, and unrecorded interviews or performances. Interviews you conducted yourself are not included in your reference list , but instead cited in the text as personal communications.

Published or recorded interviews are included in the reference list. Cite them in the usual format of the source type for example, a newspaper article , website or YouTube video. Dorsey, J. To cite content from social media that is not publicly accessible e. direct messages, posts from private groups or user profiles , cite it as a personal communication in the text, but do not include it in the reference list :. James, Twitter direct message, March 25, When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation.

If there are no page numbers e. when citing a website but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:.

Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable. When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.

When no author at all can be determined—e. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary. APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.

The 7th edition APA Manual , published in October , is the most current edition. However, the 6th edition, published in , is still used by many universities and journals. The APA Manual 7th edition can be purchased at Amazon as a hardcover, paperback or spiral-bound version. You can also buy an ebook version at RedShelf.

The American Psychological Association anticipates that most people will start using the 7th edition in the spring of or thereafter. or Rev. In the 7th edition of the APA manual, no location information is required for publishers.

The 6th edition previously required you to include the city and state where the publisher was located, but this is no longer the case. In an APA journal citation , if a DOI digital object identifier is available for an article, always include it. You may include up to 20 authors in a reference list entry. When an article has more than 20 authors, replace the names prior to the final listed author with an ellipsis, but do not omit the final author:.

Davis, Y. Include the DOI at the very end of the APA reference entry. Hawi, N.

Q. When referencing a book, do I use the date published or the date reprinted?,Table of contents

 · But only use access dates with online sources. No access date should be added for, e.g., a printed book without a publication date. Date ranges. When citing the entirety of a  · You have the original publication date, reprint dates and dates for new editions. The date you should be using is the publication date for the edition you are using. If a book  · In the most extreme cases, you will see a long string like: "Submitted Date1, Revised Date2, Accepted Date 3, Published Online Date 4." In short: don't sweat the  · APA Style (7th ed.) provide a retrieval date in the source element when citing an unarchived (e.g., not stable) work that is likely or meant to change. Including this date  · As the MLA Handbook notes, “When a source carries more than one date, cite the date that is most meaningful or most relevant to your use of the source” (42). Thus, if you are  · Incidentally, Version of record online is mostly meaningless for a lot of math papers, since in math one often cites papers from well before the s. Knowing that a certain paper ... read more

Is this article helpful? Deresiewicz, William. edited Apr 13, at Scribbr Plagiarism Checker. jakebeal jakebeal k 41 41 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. On the reference page , you only include the secondary source Mahone, publications citations terminology.

Episode of a Television Series If you are documenting an episode of a television seriesthe year of its original release may suffice. Parenthetical citation: Brown,as cited in Mahone, Narrative citation: Brown do i use the published online date for refrencing, as cited in Mahone, states that… On the reference pageyou only include the secondary source Mahone, For example: TED, If an article, a comment, or another source on the web includes a time when the work was posted or last modified, include the time along with the date. Want to contact us directly?

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